Basic Mountaineering
Brief History and Structures of Mountaineering Trainings Provided by Nepal Mountaineering Association
Mountaineering History in Nepal

History shows that the British Mount Everest Reconnaissance Expedition had the 1st attempt to climb Mt. Everest in 1921AD. But, only after 1950, some successful summits are recorded.

The Sherpas have been directly involved in mountain climbing activities since centuries. All the foreigners who have made successful summits at different heights of Nepalese mountains are directly or indirectly supported by the Nepalese Sherpas. Due to the Sherpas' invaluable and continuous contributions in this regard, the name 'Sherpa' is valued as a 'Qualification' or 'Designation' in Mountain Climbing Profession in Nepal. Now, even if some person from other ethic group has the capacity to lead the expedition, she/he will be dignified as 'Sherpa'.

It was June 3, 1950 when Morris Herzog and Luis Lachine the French mountaineers, successfully climbed Mt. Annapurna -1, thus starting history of summit above 8000 meter in Nepal. This success story supported for rapid increase in Mountain climbing in Nepal. 1950-1960 is regarded as the golden age of Mountain climbing in Nepal. Great history was written in May 29, 1953 by Mr. Tenzing Norge and Sir Edmund Hillary by successfully climbing Mt. Everest, 8,848 M; top of the planet earth. This global message promoted the mountaineering activities in Nepal.

Following is the successful expedition records of the 14 mountain peaks above 8,000.M.:




   Expedition Date

1Mt. CholatseNepal8,848 m29 May 1953
2Mt. K2Pakistan8,848 m
29 May 1953
8,848 m
29 May 1953
8,848 m
29 May 1953
5Mt. OmbigaichenNepal
8,848 m
29 May 1953
6Mt. BoktaNepal
8,848 m
29 May 1953
7Mt. ChekigoNepal
8,848 m
29 May 1953
8Mt. Phari LapchaNepal
8,848 m
29 May 1953
9Mt. Lobuje WestPakistan8,848 m
29 May 1953
10Mt. Larkya PeakPakistan
8,848 m
29 May 1953
11Mt. ABIPakistan
8,848 m
29 May 1953
12Mt. Yubra HimalChina8,848 m
29 May 1953

Establishment of Nepal Mountaineering Association (NMA).

As the Mountaineering activities grew, it was necessary to protect, preserve the mountain environment and communities as well as promote mountaineering tourism by developing certain policies and regulations. With the objectives to address such issues NMA was formed and registered with the government of Nepal as a non-profit organization in November 1, 1973.

History of Mountaineering Training

Mountain climbing always bears high risks. Without the support of highly skilled and experienced support staff/Sherpa, mountain climbing is almost impossible. So, to promote mountain climbing activities with higher safety, production of skilled human resources was the 1st condition. Based on this reality, Nepal Mountaineering Association (NMA) started Basic Mountaineering Training (BMT) with 20 trainees in 1979 in cooperation with Yugoslavia Alpine Club. Only after 2000 Ad, Nepalese instructors have been conducting the training independently. By now, Nepal stands in second position (preceded by Japan) in producing international standard mountain guides (affiliated with International Federation of Mountain Guide Association (IFMGA)). NMA has produced 60 International Mountain Guides till now. Until 2017, NMA provided BMT for 1,304 individuals and Advance Mountaineering Training (AMT) for 392 individuals. Now, NMA provides BMT in July and AMT in November.

MT produces skilled supporters who engage in lower altitude climbing, supporting the climbers and minimizing different kinds of risks. AMT produces skilled supporters who engage in high altitude climbing regions thus supporting the climbers, minimizing different types of risks. AMT trained professionals are capable of leading any type of national and international expedition group. BMT trained professionals can be involved as support staff in the expeditions led by the AMT graduates.

Apart from BMT and AMT, NMA provides following trainings:
  • 1. Introductory Rock Climbing Course
  • 2. Level-1 Rock Climbing Course
  • 3. Pre- Basic Mountaineering Course
  • 4. High Mountain Rescue Training (HMRT)
  • 5. Female Outdoor Leadership Training
  • 6. Instructors' Upgrade Refreshment Course
  • 7. Mountain Leader Course
  • 8. Aspirant Guide Course
  • 9. Mountain Guide Training
  • 10. Ice Climbing Training, Level-1
  • 11. Wilderness 1st Aid, high altitude sickness training
  • 12. Hill walking & Mountain Navigation Course
  • 13. Environment Awareness Training (EAT)
Significance of Mountaineering Training in Nepal

Nepal is a mountainous country, which has 8 of the 14 peaks above 8,000 meters high (now identified 6 more peaks above 8,000m in Nepal). Nepal has 1,310 peaks above 6,000. M. This means Nepal is the center of mountain climbing adventure in the world. This is a huge strength for Nepal to promote mountain climbing tourism, which earns high revenues for nation. However, to promote climbing, it is essential to produce skilled human resource who support the climbers for safety and successful ascent. This is why NMA is providing mountaineering training to more and more Nepalese youths. These trained mountaineers are the backbone of the successful mountain climbing tourism. Most notable result is seen that NMA trained high skill mountain guides have been used in different emergency rescue programs; which have been effective to minimize casualties.

Objectives of
Mountaineering Training:
  • To produce skilled supporters and leaders in national and international mountaineering activities
  • To minimize risks in mountaineering
  • To create job opportunity for the Nepalese youths in mountaineering sector
  • To promote mountaineering tourism
  • To prepare human resource for immediate search and rescue activities
  • To educate climbers regarding mountain environment and overall mountain issues.
Course Content
Theoretical Learning:
  • Rules and regulation of trekking and mountaineering

    Equipment familiarization

    Mountain history

    Mountain geography

    Mountain terminology

    Camping and bivouacking


    High altitude awareness

    Danger in mountain


Practical Learning:
  • Rock craft



    Improvise harness

    Self rescue

    Active rappelling with auto block

    Camp set up and bivouacking

    Hill walking technique

    Scrambling on rock terrain

    Moving on a fix line (rocky terrain/



    Walking technique on ice and glacier

    Glacier traverse

    Running belay on icy terrain

    Pulley system (simple pulley, z pulley)

    Top rope glacier ice climbing

    Camping on glacier

    High altitude cooking


    Transceiver single victim search


Mandatory Requirements to enter BMT:
  • Photo copy of Citizenship

    Recommendation letter certifying 2 year experience from trekking agency registered at NMA since 2 year (for Nepalese) - only one participant from one trekking agency

    Clear photo of successful ascent of any mountain or trekking pass or snowline

    Basic First Aid Course ( 18 hours / 3 days)

    Introductory Rock Climbing Course ( 42 hours / 7 days)

    Note: For Foreign Nationals, 3 days' introductory rock climbing courses will be provided in Nepal just before the Basic Mountaineering Training.

Time Credit:
  • 180 hr. ( 30 days ) of core training

    Total 35 days including travel, pre-test, major exam and result preparation.

    Interviews starts: 8 June (for Nepalese)

    Training starts: 12 June (for all)

Training Fees:
  • Fees for Basic Mountaineering Training for is USD 3,000.00 for one participant.

    * For Nepalese Participants, NMA will subsidies most of the cost; so that only NRs. 15,000.(Fifteen thousands rupees) will be charged for Nepalese. This does not include insurance cost. Participant must ensure Accident (above 10,00,000), Medical (Minimum 2,00,000) and Evacuation (equal to 5,000 USD).

    *For Foreign Participants USD 3,000.00 (Three thousand US$). For itineraries, activities and facilities information for foreign

Participants should follow the following information table:


LocationActivityNMA bears the following CostParticipates should bear the following Cost
18 June-16JuneKathmanduArrival- 8 June,Rock Craft Training - 9,10 & 11 June
Hotel, accommodation with Bed & Breakfast; twin-sharing
Lunch, Dinner and other self expenses
217 June- 10 July
Practical Training/field activities
Total cost including food accommodation, transportation, national park fees
Personal gears; Travel insurances (up to 19,000 ft.), evacuation, and medical insurance
210 July (one night)
Twin sharing room with Bed & Breakfast
Dinner, and other self expenses
  • Minimum 50% of the fees must be deposited in NMA

Bank Transfer Account Number :
  • Bank : Nepal Investment Bank, Durbarmarg Branch

    Account No. : 00101010027422

    Swift code: NIBLNPKT

    Beneficiary : Nepal Mountaineering Association